Abrasive papers and cloth: Glass paper, Sand paper. Emery paper, Emery cloth. All of these consist of small abrasive particles glued onto a paper or cloth backing. The abrasive material could be garnet, glass, silicon carbide, sand or emery. Sheets, rolls and bands are the forms they come in and they are all numbered with the smaller numbers being coarser than larger numbers (P60 is coarser (rougher) the P80). Emery tends to be used more on metals but can be used on some plastics. Silicon Carbide tends to be finer than others and can be used wet or dry hence it is sometimes refered to as "wet&dry". For smooth sanding abrasive papers and cloths are often wraped around a wood or cork block. The link is to another schools site with lots of links to different abrasives. Sand paper
ABS: Acrylonitrile Butadeine Styrene. A special thermoplastic material which at its core is a mixture of Acrylic and Polystyrene with other things added.
Acrylic: a common thermopllastic material often used in the school workshop. Suitable for signs and plastic windows etc. A common trade name (owned by ICI) that it is often known as is Perspex.
Adjustable Bevel: an adjustable angle version of the try square
Aluminium: A non ferrous metal that is light weight and doesn't corrode easily.
Aluminium sand casting: a small scale process for casting aluminium in sand moulds. Can also be used with pther metals such as iron.
Analysis: sometimes called product or project analysis. Ask yourself as many quaestions as possible about your product and what it has to do, could be made from etc. In this way you can carry out pertinent research.
Anthropometry (anthropometrics): the dimensions of different body parts designers should take in to consideration when designing a new product.
Annealing: using heat to soften a metal.
Anvil: a heavy iron "workbench" used in a smiths forge to shape hot metals against with the use of hammers and other similar tools.
Aquaduct: a bridge carrying water
Axle: the bar going through a wheel, gear or pulley around which it rotates.
Back Saws: saws with a large flat rigid blade with a thicker spine at the top edge used for cutting wood. A Tenon Saw is the one we use mostly in the school workshop.
Ball pein hammer: this hammer has a rounded rear end which is used for rounding rivets. These hammers come in many different sizes and weights.
Band Saw: a machine with a continuous blade that moves around wheels similar to a pulley and belt system. It is capable of cutting straight and some curved shapes. The band saws in school must only be used by trained staff.
Barrel Fitting: see also Scan fitting. A screw goes through one piece of wood and ito a barrel in another piece. A very strong KD fitting.
Beam: a shape that is both light and strong. Used in structures. A girder is one example of a beam.
Bell crank: two levers linked together to allow movement inwards at one end. A good example is the brake mechanism on a push bike.
Bevel: Available in 2 varieties, fixed at 45 degrees or adjustable to any angle. Used in the same way as try squares
Blockboard: a manufactured board in which strips of softwood are glued together between thin layers of hardwood veneer.
Block and Tackle: a pulley system for lifting heavy weights.
Blow moulding: plastic items are extruded into a tube and placed into a mould while still hot. Warm air is blown into the tube making it expand outwards to fill the mould. The result is a hollow moulding. Many plastic bottles are made this way. Blow moulding can also be carried out on injection moulded blanks
Bridge: a structure spanning a gap such as a river.
Bridle Joint: a wood joint commonly used in furniture
Brazing: a process for joining metals together using heat and another metal rod.
Brazing Hearth: hot metalworking area.
Cable Stay Bridge: a bridge which hangs the surface off cables suspended from columns along its length.
CAD: computer aided design, computer assisted design. A computer program that helps designers produce the drawings for their ideas. Can often work in conjunction with CAM machinery which make the items. Programs work in 2D, 3D or both. Examples found in school are Techsoft 2D Design (and here) and Pro Desktop. In the CLC we also have Pro Engineer. link 2 for exporting to manufacture note: in the CLC we have different output software for different machines.
CAE: computer assisted engineering
Calendering: a manufacturing process for making thin flat sheet on large rolls by passing the material through a series of high pressure rollers that get progressively closer together. Plastic, paper and fabric can be calendered. Materials such as paper and fabric or plastic and fabric can be rolled together in this process. A texture can be added to the final rolling.
Calipers: a group of measuring and marking tools used in the workshop.
CAM: computer aised manufacturing, computer assisted manufacturing. Using drawings produced in a CAD package to get them made. A laser cutter is an example of CAD as is Rapid Prototyping
Cam Lock: A KD fitting using a turning lock with a screw slot which locks a screw in pin.
Cams: variously shaped "wheels" that transfer rotary motion into reciprocating linear motion .
Cascamite: perhaps the strongest of all the wood glues, this comes as a white powder and has to be mixed with water to use it.
Case Hardening: the process of using heat to add carbon to a steel near its surface to harden it but leaving the core soft enough to work.
Casting: heating metals to liquid state and pouring into a mould in order to shape it. The metal hardens as it cools and takes the shape of the void in the mould.
Centre Lathe: a machine which can be semi automatic, completely manual or computer controlled, which turns the metal at a high speed and cutting tools move across and along it to make round shapes. Some models can cut screw threads. link 2 link 3 link 4 link 5
Centre Punch: a metalworkers marking tool used to mark a point. It has a point at one end to marke with and a flat opposite end to hit with a hammer.
Circular saw: there are two types but both have a round blade that spins. One type is hand held the other is fixed to the floor (table saw) a sliding head that moves across the material (cross cut circular saw).
Claw hammer: Aa heavy hammer used to drive large nails into thick timber. The claw is used to remove bent nails.
Client: a customer who buys a product or wants you to do work for them.
CNC: Computer Numerical Controlled machinery. A laser cutter is one type of cnc machinery we have in school. In the CLC there are also computer controlled milling machines and micro routers. More modern types of CNC machine also include rapid prototypers which create the product by hardening starch or resins (often with a laser). link 2. A CNC Router CNC Safety Advantages and disadvantages of CNC to manual
Combination Lock Nut and Split Pin: a nut with a special slot or hole to take a split pin which passes through a hole (or is shaped to fit around) the bolt.
Comb Joint: see finger joint
Compound gears: are more than one gear on the same axle.
Compression moulding: moulding plastics through pressure. Usually carried out on thermosetting plastics.
Conductivity: the ability to carry an electric current.
Contact Adhesive: a strong glue that can be used to join many different types of materials. Apply a small amount to both surfaces, leave for 5 to 10 minutes to dry and press together. The joint bonds immediately and cannot be repositioned.
Continuous improvement: a company needs to make sure its products are up to date in order to survive. For this reason new products or new versions are constantly being designed and made. A car company will often relaunch tried and trusted car as a new improved model called a marque e.g. Escort MkII.
Continuous production: mass production. Manufacturing on a large scale.
Coping Saw: a framed saw for cutting intricate shapes in wood materials and some plastics. The blade can be rotated to allow cutting in different directions.
Copper: A brownish non ferrous metal that has good electical and thermal conductivity properties. It is quite soft so can be shaped quite easily.
Corded drill: a drill which is powered by electricity direct from the mains. There are two basic types, a basic drill that will drill a hole by turning the drill bit and the hammer drill that will not only turn the drill bit but will rapidly move it back and forth to hammer the hole as well as drill it. Useful for drilling harder materials such as concrete, stone and bricks.
Cordless drill: similar to the corded drill but it has a rechargeable battery to supply the power that makes it work.
Corner Block: a plastic block used to join one end of a board to the face of another. This is a type of KD fiting also known as a Fixit Block. Natural wood blocks can also be used and made specifically for each job.
Corner clamp: Used to clamp materials together at right angles such as the corners of a picture frame. Link to an online shop entry.
Cost: what prices do you need to pay out in order to make your product. There are fixed costs and variable costs. Once you have worked this out you can factor in proffit and so work out how much you can sell your product for.
Crank and Slider mechanism: turns rotary into reciprocation motion. One practical example is the cam and cylinder in a car engine.
Crankshaft: shaped "axles" such as found in a car engine or on a bike pedals or pedal car to transfer rotary motion into reciprocating motion or vice versa.
Crating: a drawing method using boxes to start off before adding the real shapes and details.
Cross halving joint: used for joining two pieces of wood that cross over each other.
Cross pein hammer: a general purpose hammer named after the wedge shaped rear face. The wedge is used to start knocking in small pins/nails.
Customer profile: the type of people likely to buy the product you are designing. If you do not know who your customers are likely to be you cannot find out what they want from your product so it may not appeal to them and none will be sold.
Cyanoacrylate: super glue
Depron: a modern lightweight foam that can be moulded and cut easily. It is similar to expanded polystyrene and is commonly used as plastic food trays. Ideal for making light models such as airplanes.
Die Casting: Injection moulding for metals rather than plastics. The hot (liquid) metal is forced into moulds under pressure which is usually created from hydraulic rams. Link 2 to an industy site, scroll down to get process explanantions and videos of inside the machine. In school we can do a low pressure version of this with MDF moulds into which we pour in low temperature melting metals such as lead free pewter.
Disk Sander: a sander that has a circular sanding surface that spins very fast to smooth the surface of woods and plastics. Some can be used on metals. We do not have o ne of these but we do have several belt sanders.
Dividers: Similar to a drawing compass but with 2 points, this tool is used to scribe circles or arcs onto metals and plastics. Can also be used against a ruler to set a length and then transfer it to a material
Donkey saw: a powered hacksaw
Dot Punch: a metalworkers marking tool used to mark a point. It has a point at one end to marke with and a flat opposite end to hit with a hammer.
Dowel: round section wood, wooden pins often used to join wooden or manufactured boards toether.
Drill bit: the changeable tool held in the chuck of a drill that rotates to cut a hole into the work.
Drop forge: The industrial version of the hammer and anvil using a large force applied by a mechanical hammer The hammer and the anvil parts of the machines are known as dies. SImple items are better suited for this process.
Ductility: the property of a material allowing it to change its shape by stretching.
Dynamic load: a moving weight. A lorry moving across a bridge is exerting a dynamic load through the bridge.
Elasticity: for a material to withstand tthe forces placed upon it it must not be too rigid or it will break. It is said to be slightly elastic.
Ellipse: a 3D circle. It is important to be able to draw ellipses as these form the basis of all curves in 3D drawings (such as cylinders and rounded corners. Wheels will be seen as ellipses in 3D.
Environment: where will your item be used? If outside, it will need to be weather proof. What factors will need to be thought about to protect the world (our environment)? Are there recycled materials/components that could be used? What about when your product is of no further use, can it be recycled? All these and more are part of the environmental section of your portfolio.
Epoxy: a 2 part resin. Can be used as a glue or as a material in its own right. Araldite is an epoxy glue, Milliput is an epoxy putty. Equal ammounts of resin and hardener must be mixed producing an exothermic reaction (gives off heat) which makes it set hard.
Ergonome: a scale drawing with poseable parts used by designers to aid the design of items such as furniture to ensure it fits peoples bodies and postures. Download one to print and assemble yourself from here; you will need a printer, card, scissors or craft knife and split paper pins.
Ergonomics: designing things that can be used by interacting with the human body. You need to know body dimensions and the way the body moves etc. to be able to design an ergonomically successful product. This is closely linked to anthropometrics link 2 link 3
Evaluation: after you have made your product this report says how successful it is. Does it work? Does it meet all of the specification requirements? Do you like it? Do others like it? What improvements could be made if you wre to do it again? Be honest and say the bad points, you get marks for aknowledging these and proposing solutions. If you hav carried out any tests on your final product, the results should also be recorded here. A writing frame aimed at years 7,8 and 9 can be found here. For GCSE evaluations, the frame can be used as a starting point.
Existing products: similar to the product review but in less detail. Look at existing products that are similat to your design proposal and see what the key points are in each of them. This is a good way to guage what you need to do early in the research section of your portfolio.
Exploded diagram: a drawing that shows the parts in line but separated also known as an Assembly Drawing/Diagram
Extrusion: metals and plastics can be heated up and forced through a hole called a die. The material takes the shape of the hole and has a very long length. Its a bit like squeezing toothpaste from a tube. link 2 link 3
Facing off: using a lathe put a flat face on the end of the metal stock.
Ferrous metals: metals containing iron. They are magnetic and usually quite hard. They also rust very easily. link 2 gives examples and descriptions of common ferrous metals. Non ferrous metals do not contain iron so do not rust and are generally more ductile.
Flexible Manufacture: some machines can be reconfigured and used to make other items. An injection moulding machine can have the mould changed on it to make a different product. A food production line can be used to make a batch of digestive biscuits and then a batch of chocolate digestives later. In this way expensive machinery does not have to be specially purchased for every product thus saving money and keeping costs down. link 2 link 3
Focus Group: a group of people who discuss ideas and help to come up with or appraise ideas. Designers often use focus groups at different stages of the design process; to find out what potential customers want, to look at existing products, to assess how ideas are progressing and finally to assess the end product.
Follower: a reciprocating part of a cam mechanism that stays against the cam.
Forge: a metalworkers work area, Blacksmiths made horse shoes in a forge.
Freehand sketching: drawing in 2D or 3D without the aid of rulers or templates of any kind.
Frett Saw: often refered to as a scroll saw (american) it has a reciprocating blade which can cut intricate shapes.
Furnace: heater for melting metal ready for casting.
Fuse: an electrical safety device which protects machinery from damage due to too much current. It is a thin wire that overheats and breaks when too much current flows thus breaking the circuit. link 2 link 3
G Cramp: a clamp used to hold work steady or to hold smaller items together while waiting for glue to set.
Gear Train: two or more gears that mesh together.
Glass paper: a paper or cloth with very small glass particles which abrade material surfaces to smoth them. Sometimes glasspaper is known as sand paper as his is the original name from when particles of sand were used.
Glue gun: a tool that heats up glues that come in stick form and dispenses it by means of a trigger action. There are two types, hot melt and cool melt. As the names suggets one melts at a hotter temperature than the other. Both can burn so caution is needed when using glue guns.
Halving Joints: ways to join woods to form a Tee shape or any 90 degree shape.
Hand saws: there are lots of different hand saws each with specific uses and specific materials. All saws have blades with teeth which are specially shaped to remove a small amount of material as they cut. For this reason saws carry out one of the wasting processes. The number of teeth along a length of the blade is known as TPI (Teeth per Inch). wood saws link how stuff works
Hardboard: a thin lightweight but not very strong manufactured board. A version with regularly spaced holes is available called pegboard
Hardening: Using heating and cooloing to make a metal harder. See also tempering which is the opposite and at the same link.
Hardness: the ability of a material to withstand scratching and dents etc.
Hardwoods: wood from treas that are slow growing deciduous trees i.e. loose their leaves in winter. These trees take many years (often hundreds of years) to grow and as such are not good for managed forrests and are very expensive.
Health and Safety at work act: the rules everyone has to follow when in the workshop. These rules are legal requirements and intended to keep us all safe. The act goes further than simply safety in the workshop and covers almost everything in our daily lives.
Hinge: a metal (or sometimes plastic) fixing that allows a part to swing against another (such as a door to a frame).
Horizontal Milling Machine: a machine which clamps the material securely to a moving bed and removes material with a wheel like cutter. Less accurate but faster than a vertical milling machine. The safest method for cutting is called up milling
Hot Glue Gun: a tool for melting glue sticks to join materials together.
Ideas: the early stage of designing where you draw out as many different possibilities as you can think of. They should be annotated with key points as well as good and bad things. As you develop an idea the bad things must be designed out.
Idler gear: A small gear that does not change the input speed and direction and direction of rotaion so that the output is the same.
Injection Moulding: a thermoforming process whereby the plastic is melted to a sticky paste and injected under pressure into a mould. The process is high cost to set up so is only suitab le for mass production but has excellent results and can contain high detail. This is perhaps the most common plastics manufacturing process in use today. (link 2 contains an animation of the process.) link 3
Internal resistance: a tyre supports weight by air pressure pushing outwards. The tyre has internal resistance to prevent the air escaping.
Isometric Drawing: a 3D drawing where all of the horizontal lines are drawn at 30 degrees to horizontal. This shoild be drawn to a scale so measurements can be taken from it. Sketched isometric is often asked for in exam questions so it is an essential drawing type to know how to do.
Jig: A special tool made for a specific purpose as part of a production line. For instance, when we make the fuse tester/spirit level in year 8 we use a jig to help us mark the positions of the holes ready for drilling. This means we do not have to measure every hole individually and we can accurately repeat the process very quickly. A common jig is the Mitre Box
Jigsaw: a powered hand tool for cutting woods, metals and plastics with a reciprocating blade. It can be used for straight or curved cuts and can be used in the middle of a board if a hole is drilled through first to put the blade through.
Joining techniques: there are lots of ways to join materials and components together and it is important that you know these and can show them to an examiner/your teacher. There are so many ways to join materials and components that it is impossible to list them all but the links shows a way some can be listed in a portfolio. link 2
Knock down fittings: usually temporary fittings used to join components together. Often used in flat pack furniture. Also known as KD Fittings. There are many different types of KD fittings. See also Focus on Knock Down Fittings on the school network. link 2
Knurling: a pattern added to round metal shapes on a lathe. It consists of patterned whels that rotate against the metal an cut the pattern into it. Ideal for adding grip patterns.
Laser Cutter/Etcher: a cnc machine that burns designs from flat sheet using a fine laser beam. Some can cut completely through the material, others will burn a design into the surface (etch), while others will do both. link 2 to create a design to the laser cutter in the clc/workshop we must use 2D dDesign to create the drawing using red for cuts and green for etching. The drawing must be exported as a .dxf file which the laser software can understand.
Letters and emails: write to manufacturers asking for their help, there is some good advice in the link. If you do not get a response, do not worry, simply state this in your research section alongside a copy of the letter/email.
Lever: the simplest form of machine. There are three classes 1st, 2nd and 3rd class levers which are explained in the link site.
Linear motion: movement in one direction in a straight line.
Line Bending: Thermoplastic sheets are heated along a thin line and folded to an angle. When cool, the plastic sheet will retain the bend. This process is used a lot in schools and we use it in the Y9 mobile phone stand project amongst others. PDF of process from a manufacturer of line bending machinery. link 2
Linkage: a mechanism consisting of two or more rods joined together with axles to allow them to rotate around each other.
Lock Nuts: special nuts which lock onto the bolt so can be used in special places such as axles on smaller wheels.
Lok Joint: a 2 part plastic fixing block. A type of KD fitting.
Logbook: a diary of everything you do, problems you come up against and how you solved them while making your product.
Lost Pattern Casting: also known as lost foam casting. A method of casting alluminium and other metals into shapes not possible with split moulds. The shape is made from foam or expanded polystyrene and is then encased in sand (see aluminium sand casting). The hot metal is poured into the mould and vapourises the foam pattern making the void as it fills it. Toxic fumes are produced by this method and must be extracted.
Machine Vice: A small vice used to hold materials whilst being drilled or milled. Note: spelling on link is the American "Vise". English spelling is Vice. Link to general vices page.
Malleability: the ability for a material to be shaped in all directions without any cracks appearing.
Mallet: usually made from beech (a hard wood) and used for driving chisels and gouges. Also good for knocking tight wood joints together. Also made from rubber or nylon which are used as the beech mallet but can also be used to hammer metal sheets into different shapes without damaging the surface. The bossing mallet on the other hand is all wood with an egg shape head usually made from boxwood and used in conjunction with a leather sandbag for hollowing or dishing sheet metal.
Market Research: finding out what your customers want from the product you are designing. The customers generally are the end users rather than the compnay wanting a designer to design for them to make. link 2
Marking Gauge: a tool for marking a single line paralel to the edge of a piece of wood. It is similar to a mortise gauge but with only one point not two.
Marquetry: the art or craft of using different veneers to make decorative pictures or patterns on items made of inferior and lower quality wood. Similar effects can be achieved with thicker blocks of wood and this is usually refered to as parquetry
Materials: woods, metals plastics, etc. that can be used to make things from. It is important to understand the properties of any materials you are thinking of using as you need to choose the right one for the job.
MDF: Medium Density Fibreboard. A manufactured board made by bonding very small wood particles in a resin. It has no grain and can be cut and drilled easily.
Mechanism: moving parts that make an item work or do something. For instance a toy car has people that move up and down as it rolls along; this must have a mechanism to make it work. The simplest for of mechanism is a first class lever (see saw).
Metal: a vast group of materials with many different properties. Metals are extracted from stone ores and come in two main groups, ferrous (containing iron) and non ferrous (not containing iron) [and here]. Metals can be combines to get new metals called alloys which have even more properties link 2
MFC: Melamine Faced Chipboard The melamine is a thin decorative and protective outer layer glued to the chipboard. It can be coloured and patterned.
Mitre: a 45 degree cut for joing 2 pieces of material through a 90 degree angle. Mitres can have different angles for noe 90 degree corners. A mitre box or Mitre saw can be used to make cutting these joints asier. Some circular power saws can be set to cut these joints very accurately and at great speed.
Model: an early stage in the manufacturing of an idea. A trial or prototype. Made as part of the development section of the design portfolio. link 2 Lots of tools and materials can be used to make your models, here are some: 1 2 3 4 5 6
Mortise Chisel: aspecial chisel just for cutting mortises.
Mortise Guage: a wood workers marking tool for marking lines paralel to an edge. It is similar to a marking guage but has two points to mark both sides of the mortise.
Muscle Wire: A wire that will contract when an electrical current is passed through it making it ideal for small movements in mechanisms.
Natural wood: wood straight from the tree. It must be dried for practical use so that it will not warp or twist etc. in use. It comes in two basic types; hardwoods and softwoods. Examples found here in more detail.
Net: the development of a box or carton. This is the flattened out shape which when folded makes up a box. In the link, select a box then click net to see the flattened out form.
Odd Leg Calipers: used to scribe lines parallel to a straight edge on plastics and metals. The link takes you to a general caliper web page, scroll down to find odd leg but all of the information os very good for the whole caliper family of tools.
One off production: making one item only. Often this is the prototype. In same areas of production this is known as bespoke manufacturing as the product is the only one made for a specific use or client.
Orthographic Projection: a form of engineering drawing in which each side of a product is drawn flat, to a given scale and in correct alignment with the others around it. We use thrid angle orthographic projection. The product is made from these drawings. We can produce these by hand or by CAD Handout here
Oscilating motion: swinging back and forth like when you are on a swing. A pendulum oscilates.
Parts sheet: a sheet showing all of the components, their materials and sizes as well as how they fit together. This sometimes includes an exploded or assembly diagram. this last link is to a pdf which requires
Planes: there are many different types of planes but all do essentially the same task; smoothing the surface of wood. They all consist of a flat base and a sharpe blade that removes a thin sliver of the wood surface. link 2
Planishing Hammer: this has a highly polished head which must never be used as a general purpose hammer. This is used in conjunction with a polished stake for finishing beeten metalwork.
Planning: you must plan out every stage of your project from the start. One form of planning is the Gantt Chart in which boxes are coloured according to what you expaect to do at specific times of the work and for how long. You should plan out the research, design, manufacturing and testing stages from the outset in order to make sure you meet the final deadline.
Plywood: a manufactured board made from an odd number of layers (ply's) of natural wood glued together so that the grain on each is a t 90 degrees to those around it. It is very strong and warp resistant, comes in large boards and has a natural grain on the flat surfaces. It is affected by water so needs treating for use outside but a waterproof version is available called Boat or Yacht Ply.
Polymerisation: the process of producing plastic materials made of long chains of monomers. A monomer is a single molecule that can be combined into these long chains of many monomers hence polymer.
Pop-Pop Boat: a boat which works by heating water to make steam in a special chamber using a candle (or similar) as the heat source. The main Year 7 Resistant Materials project. Instruction to make a Pop-Pop Boat the FCHS way
Pop rivets: a special gun is used to fix two metals together with a special type of rivet.
Portfolio the folder of work containing all of your research, design development. planning and evaluation. You should also include photographs of development models and you final product. This can be produced on paper or computer; all paper work should be scanned into the computer and added to your electronic portfolio for submission to the exam board. Portfolio outline can be found here
Power Hacksaw: a hacksaw with a motor for cutting through larger pieces of metal. Sometimes refered to as a Donkey Saw.
Power Planer: a smoothing plane with rotating blades to make planing wood easier.
Power Saws: there are many different types of powered saws with different uses and different types of movement. Some are hand held, others portable but need to be securely fixed to a surface and others that need to be permanently fixed in a workshop. The link shows a good range of different powered tools.
Power Screwdriver: as its name suggest a screwdriver that takes the hard work out by turning the screw for you.
Pressing: taking sheet metals and passing them through shaped steel dies which press the metal between them forming a 3D shape. Items made in this way include car body panels, spoons and many others. Sometimes called stamping.
Problem: new products are created to satisfy a need or a problem. The problem is in essence "we need something that can do this..."
Pro Desktop: Pro/D. A 3D CAD package we use in school. Cane be use for designing ideas through to finished semi photorealistic images and the engineering drawings. It is available free to all pupils at FCHS. Some tutorials can be found here
Product Analysis: looking at a product to see if it meets all of the requirements.
Production Line: a sequence of processes designed to make a product. Mass production uses special machinery often lined up in the sequence required to make an item thus speeding up the process of manufacturing in large quantities.
Product Review: look at products that are similar to the one you are designing and analyse it to see how it works, how successful it is, how it's made, the good and bad points etc. In this way you have a good starting point to help you design a better product. Only by knowing the competitions bad points can you hope to come up with an even better solution. A comparison can be made of different products that do the same basic thing to see whay one might be better than another.
Profile Cutter: a tool for cutting vacuum formings from the sheet.
Prototype: The hand made first attempt at the real thing. These products are very expensive because of the nature of production. They are used to see if the designers idea will work as expected.Mass production is then planned based upon the reults of the prototype stage.
Prototyping: making the first trial product
Pulley: a wheel like device with a groove running around its circumference to take a belt in order to transfer rotary motion from one place to another. It is a bit like a sprocket and chain but without the teeth! link 2 (changing direction), link 3 (the maths), link 4(lifting)
Push Fittings: small disks with specially shaped holes in the centre used to push on to rods for fixing lightweight things such as wheels on toy cars securely
Quality Assurance: checking everything is going according to plan on a production line. Also known as QA
Questionnaire: an important part of research in which you ask pertinent questions to find out what people want/need from your product. In this way you can discover the really important things you product must have or do in order to be successful and desirable.
QUICK RETURN CRANK MECHANISM: a special mechanism for turning rotary motion into oscillating (pendulum) type motion with a faster return.
Rack and pinion: a special gear that transfers rotary motion into linear back and forth motion. The rack is the long flat gear while the pinion is the round gear. An example can be seen in workshop D6 on the mechanism for raising and lowering the table on the pillar drills.
Rapid Prototyping: a way to grow a product from a CAD design in order to see if it is as thought. Very expensive software, hardware and materials are required for this. There are many different versions in use each with their own advantages and disadvantages. link 2 process advantages
Ratchet Mechanism: essentially a type of gear (ratchet) and an arm (pawl) to stop it turning in one direction
Reciprocating motion: moving backwards and forwards in a stright line.
Recycling: re using materials rather than simply burning or burying them. Many materials can be recycled, many plastics can be shredded and re moulded to make other items. Plastic drink bottles are often shredded and the resultant material is used to make fleeces! So just think, you could be wearing some old coke bottles! link 2
Remote manufacturing: making a product in a different location to the designing. This can be in a different city or country.
Research: finding out what you need to know in order to be able to design and make your product. There are many different types of research you need to carry out. The exam board is looking for around 6 different areas of research.
Rich Picture: part of the ideas storming section of a design portfolio. In essence a spidergram or mind map with images as well as words.
Focus RM2: software available in school that can tell you about components and materials in detail and can help you cost your project. This link is to the catalogue of the publisher. We have this on the school network
Rotational Moulding: used as an alternative to injection moulding or blow moulding. The moulds are a lot cheaper (by up to 90% lower cost!). The mould is hollow and opens to allow the plastic powder to be loaded. The mould id heated in order to melt the plastic and the mould is spun around three axes spreading the moulten plastic to cover the inside of the mould through centrifugal force. The mould is cooled while spinning and the plastic sets forming a skin on the inside of the mould. The mould is opened and the platic product removed. Used for lightweight hollow products such as footballs. Many lightweight plastic garden toys are made in this way. Link 2 (including animation of the process)
Safety: it is important that our products work safely and do not cause harm to our potential customers. We need to consider many aspects such as no sharpedges, no small removable items in toys for youngsters etc. There are so many that we have standards that designers and manufacturers must meet and these need to be aknowledged in your design portfolio. link 2
Sash Cramp: a long clamp used for holding larger items together while working or glueing. These were originally used to hold window frames together while being glued but have many other uses such as holding boxes and drawers while the glue sets Sometimes refered to as sash clamps.
Sanding Machines: there are lots of different types of sanding machines from circular to belt and orbital. All do basically the same job but move the abrasive surface in different ways. Belt sanders orbital sander
Scan Fitting: see also barrel joint. A form of KD fitting.
Scriber: A sharp metal tool used to mark accurately on metals and plastics.
SDS drill: a special heavy duty hand drill that can chisel as well as drill.
Section: the shape of a beam
Section Drawing: used to show what something looks like inside by cutting through the item and showing the cut edge. Sometimes referred to as a cross section or sectional drawing.
Shape Memory Alloy: a metal with special properties that allow it to return to its original shape. Shapes can also be "programmed" into them so they will return to the programmed shape when external forces are removed.
Shear: the force in items like scissors etc. where two forces act inwards towards each other.
Shears: scissors for metal cutting (hand held) through to bench mounted versions and even larger floor mounted ones some filling a room! In our workshop we have the hand type shears (or snips), bench mounted "notcher" versions (sometimes refered to by a manufacturers name of Gabbro and the larger bench mounted shears which also have rolling bars and folders.
Sliding Bevel: a tool which can be set to different angles to aid marking out.
Smart Materials: a range of new materials with special properties making them difficult to fit into the usual material groupings. There are many different materials considered smart and more are being developed all the time. The Technology Enhancement Program (TEP) have many different smart materials listed and for sale on their website: TEP Home TEP Smart Materials More Smart Materials
Smart Wire: A wire that contracts (shrinks) when an electrical charge is passed through it. The wire returns to its original length when the electricity is switched off. Great for use in lightweight mechanisms instead of complex motors and gear trains.
Softwoods: wood from fast growing coniferous trees. These trees do not loose their leaves in winter, are generally tall and thin in nature and have thin pointed leaves. Being fast growing they are ideal for managed forrests and are relatively inexpensive compared to hardwoods. List of common softwoods here
Solder: a soft metal wire that can be heated to liquid and used to fix electrical or electronic products.
Soldering: joning small components such as electronic components with hot metal.
Soldering iron: a tool for carrying out soldering.
Solution: the final idea that will be made
Specification: the culmination of your research where you list everything your prodcut must have or could have etc. There are primary and secondary aspects of tour specification: primary aspects are those your product cannot function without some thought to include them, for instance a glass must be be able to hold water or it is no good. Secondary aspects are those which give a product desireability but whaich it can still function successfuly without, for instance a simple family saloon car must have wheels, doors, and engine etc. for it to work, any car will have this but a Rolls Royce has extra comfort, less road noise, leather seats etc, all of which give it extra desireability but other cars will still get you from A to B but with less style!
Speed Clamp: similar to sash cramps but with a self locking system. A bit easier to use and more versatile than the traditional sash cramp. Lots of different sizes from small to very large.
Spirit Level: a device which uses a bubble in a tube of liquid to see if a surface is horizontal or vertical.
Split Pins: pins with two prongs that are pushed through a hole and one or both prongs are bent outwards to secure it. Paper pins afre a common version of these that you might have used. Another name for
Spring: a part of a mechanism that will compress or stretch but always return to its original state unless the movement ges too far. There are many different types of spring such as the leaf spring, compression spring and others.
Sprocket and chain: a gear driving a chain such as found on a push bike to transfer the power from the pedals to the wheels
Stainless steel: A form of steel which is prevented from rusting by the addition of chromium
Static load: a person standing still on a bridge is exerting static load on a bridge.
Steel: a metal containing iron and carbon. It comes in varying grades of hardness all of which will rust except for stainless steel. Common names for steels are low carbon steel, medium cabon steel, high carbon steel and tool steel. The more carbon, the harder the steel.
Stencil: a drawing template.
Strength: for a material to be strong enough it must withstand the forces placed upon it without bending, twisting or breaking.
Strip heater: a machine for heating thermoplastics in a straight line for manual bending.
Sustainability: an environmentally friendly source of materials or other resources. A managed forrest is sustainable because trees are planted to replace the ones cut down.
Superglue: trade name for Cyanoacrylate adhesive.
Synthesis: the answers to the analysis section of the design portfolio.
System Diagram: a system consits of an input, a process and an output. The link is for a system diagram for CNC manufacturing
Table plate: a metal plate that spans from one piece of material to another and is fixed to all material pieces with the use of screw or bolts
Tapping: cutting a thread into a hole (a female thread) such as that found inside a nut. The tool is called a tap and is made from a very hard steel which cuts the thread as it is twisted into the hole. Lubricant is needed to ensure a good quality thread. The male thread is cut with a die (see threading). link 2 link 3
Technical data: pertinent mesureable facts about a product are known as technical data. Complex products often have some technical data included to allow the customer to know a bit more about it. This can include physical dimensions, storage capacity of a hard drive in a computer, weight, ingredients etc.
Technology Enhancement Programme: Middlesex University based organisation helping schools with new and existing technologies. A supplie rof many materials and resources used in schools. Their website has lots of useful information.
Templates: shapes use for transfering accurately the same shape to other places such as different materials. Can be made from almost any material but in school we often make them from card. For symetrical templates fold the card along a mirror line before cutting out. NOTE: keep all templates you make as these count towards your portfolio marks. Stencils are types of templates.
Tensile strength: the property of a material to stretch without snapping. Elastic has a very high tensile strength.
Tensol: an adhesive for joining acrylic. Comes in several types, we use number 70 (tensol 70) which comes in 2 parts and have to be mixed in a ratio of 20 parts cement to 1 part hardener, and number 12 (tensol 12) that you use straight from the tin. safety here
Tempering: using heating and cooling to soften a metal to make it easier to work.
Thermocolour (Sheet): Liquid crystals that change colour when heated to certain temperatures. There are more and more uses for these such as thermometers, jewelery and a new iron from Russel Hobbs that tells you when its the right temperature for the fabric! Ever seen those frying pans with the colour changing spot in the middle to tell you when the pans hot enough?
Thermoplastic: Plastics that soften when heated. This makes them easy to mould in to shape. Scroll down the link page for a list of many common thermoplastics.
Thermosetting plastics: plastics that do not soften when heated.
Third Angle Projection: The layout of engineering drawings used in the UK and many other parts of the world.
Threading: Cutting an external (male) thread such as those found on bolts and screws. The tool used is called a split die and is held in a die stock so that it can be turned. As the tool is turned it cuts the thread working its way down the bar. A lot of cutting compound is needed (lubricant) in order to achieve a good quality thread.
Timber: another name for natural woods.
Toggle Clamp: commonly found on vacuum forming machines to hold the frame down onto the plastic sheet but these have many applications. Online shop link.
Tolerance: products must fit but to get a perfect size every time is too expensive and not usually essential so tolerances say it must be between 2 close sizes. "The CD Rack must fit any CD and should fall between 8 and 8.5mm between each shelf." link 2
Torsion: a twisting force
Toughness: the property of a material to take knocks without breaking.
Try Square: a simple tool in an L shape used for marking square corners and checking edges are square to sides. They come in 2 basic varieties, one for woodworkers and one for engineers or metalworkers
Woodturning a simple vase
Basic metal turning
Vacuum Forming: a process used commonly to form hollow products from thermoplastic sheets using a plug (mould), heat and reducing air pressure. We regularly use this process in the school workshop . (link 2 takes you to an animation explaining the process). link 3 Moulds for vacuum forming are often called plugs. They must have a smaller top than bottom (male moulds) or larger hole at the top than bottom (female mould) in order to get the plastic moulding off the mould. Female moulds need vents to allow the air to escape. There should be no sharp edges or corners as these put stress into the plastic which can cause the plastic moulding to break. Handout
Velocity ratio: the difference in speed between one point and another. In a gear train for example the difference in speed and direction between the input and output gears or pulleys is a velocity ratio. link 2 link 3
Viaduct: a bridge over water.
Vice: a range of tools fpor holding materials securely while working on. Note American spelling on the linked page. Correct UK English is VICE not vise.
Washer: a metal disc with a hole that can be used to space nuts and bolts or make larger holes smaller to take thinner bolts.
Wing Nut: a nut that can be tightened onto a bolt by hand.
Wood lathe: a machine which spins wood while special types of chisels are moved across it to produce round type shapes such as stair spindles, bowls, wooden lamp bases etc. link 2 has a video showing the wood lathe being used.
Woodworkers vice: Made from iron/steel but with wooden jaws to hold wood securely while being worked on with hand tools. Can also be used for plastics. Note american spelling on linked page.
Worm gears/drives: a special cylindrical gear that changes rotary motion through 90 degrees and changes the speed considerably.
2D Design: A CAD (Computer Aided Design) package that we use for illustration and producing drawings for among other things cutting/engraving on the laser cutter. A licensed pupil copy is available from school. There are lots of tutorials available online for this software, some of them are available here.
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